# David A. Freedman

Professor, Emeritus

Status

Past (or Inactive)

Professor Freedman passed away on 17 October 2008 at the age of 70.

[ Departmental Obituary | Campus Obituary ]

Remembrances of Professor Freedman offered by family, friends and colleagues at a memorial on 2 December 2008.

[ Departmental Biography | Vita ]

Select Publications

**Recent Books**

- D.A. Freedman.
*Statistical Models: Theory and Practice.*Cambridge University Press (2005). [Cambridge website] [What’s in this book?] [Reviews] [Student comments] [Typography] [Data sets] [Schedule] [Project] [Errata] [Supplementary Lecture Notes] - D.A. Freedman, R. Pisani, and R.A. Purves.
*Statistics*. W.W. Norton, Inc. New York (1978). [Norton] 2nd edition in 1991. Spanish translation in 1993. Chinese translation in 1995. 3rd edition in 1998. Hungarian translation in 2005. 4th edition in 2007. [Errata] for 1st printing of 4th edition

**Recent Papers**

- D.A. Freedman and J. Sekhon. “Endogeneity in probit models.” [PDF-Preprint]
- D.A. Freedman. “Diagnostics cannot have much power against general alternatives.” [PDF-Preprint] To appear in
*Journal of Forecasting*. - D.A. Freedman. “Do the
*N*’s justify the means.” [WORD-Preprint] - S.P. Klein, D.A. Freedman, R. Shavelson and R. Bolus. “Assessing school effectiveness.” [PDF-Preprint] To appear in
*Evaluation Review*. Vol. 32 (2008) Dec. - D.A. Freedman. “Randomization does not justify logistic regression.” [PDF-Preprint]
*Statistical Science*vol. 23 (2008) pp. 237–49. - D.A. Freedman and R.A. Berk. “On weighting regressions by propensity scores.” [PDF-Preprint]
*Evaluation Review*vol. 32 (2008) pp. 392–409. - D.A. Freedman. “Some general theory for weighted regressions.” [PDF-Preprint]
- D.A. Freedman. “On types of scientific enquiry: Nine success stories in medical research.” To appear in
*The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology*pp. 300–18. Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier, Henry E. Brady and David Collier, editors. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “On regression adjustments in experiments with several treatments.”
*Annals of Applied Statistics*vol. 2 (2008) pp. 176–96. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “Survival analysis: A primer.”
*The American Statistician*vol. 62 (2008) pp. 110–119. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “Oasis or mirage?” CHANCE Magazine vol. 21 no. 1 (2008) pp. 59–61. [PDF-Preprint]
- D.A. Freedman. “On regression adjustments to experimental data.”
*Advances in Applied Mathematics*vol. 40 (2008) pp. 180–193. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman and K.W. Wachter. “Methods for Census 2000 and statistical adjustments.” In
*Social Science Methodology*. Sage (2007) pp. 232–45. Steven Turner and William Outhwaite, editors [PDF-Preprint] - T. Dunning and D.A. Freedman. “Modeling selection effects.” In
*Social Science Methodology*. Sage (2007) pp. 225–31. Steven Turner and William Outhwaite, editors [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “How can the score test be inconsistent?”
*The American Statistician*vol. 61 (2007) pp. 291–295 [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “Statistical models for causation: What inferential leverage do they provide?”
*Evaluation Review*vol. 30 (2006) pp. 691–713. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “On the so-called ‘Huber Sandwich Estimator’ and ‘robust’ standard errors.”
*The American Statistician*vol. 60 (2006) pp. 299–302. [PDF-Preprint] - D.B. Petitti and D.A. Freedman. “Invited commentary: How far can epidemiologists get with statistical adjustment?”
*American Journal of Epidemiology*vol. 162 (2005) pp. 415–18. [AJE website] - D.A. Freedman and D.B. Petitti. “Hormone replacement therapy does not save lives: Comments on the Women’s Health Initiative”
*Biometrics*vol. 61 (2005) pp. 918–920. [TXT-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “Linear statistical models for causation: A critical review.” In the
*Wiley Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science*(2005). B. Everitt and D. Howell, eds. [PDF] - M. L. Eaton and D. A. Freedman. “Dutch book against ‘objective’ priors.”
*The Bernoulli Journal,*vol. 10 (2004) pp. 861–72. [PDF-Preprint] - D. A. Freedman. “Notes on the Dutch book argument.” [PDF]
- D.A. Freedman. “On specifying graphical models for causation, and the identification problem.”
*Evaluation Review*(2004) vol. 26 pp. 267–93. Reprinted in*Identification and Inference for Econometric Models: Essays in Honor of Thomas Rothenberg*, Cambridge University Press (2005) pp. 56–79, D.W.K. Andrews and J.H. Stock, eds, [PDF-Preprint] - D. A. Freedman, D. B. Petitti, and J. M. Robins. “On the efficacy of screening for breast cancer.”
*International Journal of Epidemiology,*vol. 33 (2004) pp. 43–73. [IJE] [PDF-Preprint] Correspondence, pp. 1404–6. - P. Diaconis and D. A. Freedman. “The Markov moment problem and de Finetti’s theorem: Parts I and II.”
*Mathematische Zeitschrift,*vol. 247 (2004) pp. 183–212. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “The ecological fallacy.” In the
*Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods.*Sage Publications (2004) Vol. 1 p. 293. M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T. F. Liao, eds. [TXT-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “Sampling.” In the
*Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods.*Sage Publications (2004) Vol. 3 pp. 986–990. M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T. F. Liao, eds. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman and K.W. Wachter. “On the likelihood of improving the accuracy of the census through statistical adjustment.” In
*Science and Statistics: A Festschrift for Terry Speed.*Institute of Mathematical Statistics Monograph 40 (2003) pp. 197–230. D. R. Goldstein, ed. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman and P.B. Stark. “What is the probability of an earthquake?” In
*Earthquake Science and Seismic Risk Reduction.*NATO Science Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences, vol. 32, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands (2003) pp. 201–213. F. Mulargia and R. J. Geller, eds. [PDF-Preprint] - R.A. Berk and D.A. Freedman. “Statistical assumptions as empirical commitments.” In
*Law, Punishment, and Social Control: Essays in Honor of Sheldon Messinger,*2nd ed. Aldine de Gruyter (2003) pp. 235–54. T. G. Blomberg and S. Cohen, eds. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman and D.B. Petitti. “Salt, blood pressure, and public policy.”
*International Journal of Epidemiology*vol. 31 (2002) pp. 319–320. [TXT-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “Ecological inference and the ecological fallacy.”
*International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.*Elsevier (2001) vol. 6 pp. 4027–30. Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds. [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman and K.W. Wachter. “Census adjustment: Statistical promise or statistical illusion?”
*Society*vol. 39 (2001) pp. 26–33 [PDF-Preprint] - D.A. Freedman and P.B. Stark. “The swine flu vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome.”
*Law and Contemporary Problems*, vol. 64 (2001) pp. 49–62 [Duke Law Journals] - D.A. Freedman and D.B. Petitti. “Salt and blood pressure: Conventional wisdom reconsidered.”
*Evaluation Review*, vol. 25 (2001) pp. 267–87 [PDF-preprint] - D.A. Freedman, P.B. Stark, and K.W. Wachter. “A probability model for census adjustment.”
*Mathematical Population Studies*, vol. 9 (2001) pp. 165–80 [PDF-preprint] - K.W. Wachter and D.A. Freedman. “The fifth cell: Correlation bias in U.S. census adjustment.”
*Evaluation Review*, vol. 24 (2000) pp. 191–211 [PDF-preprint] - K.W. Wachter and D.A. Freedman. “Measuring local heterogeneity with 1990 U.S. census data.”
*Demographic Research*, vol. 3 (2000) art. 10 [Demographic Research] [PDF] - D.H. Kaye and D.A. Freedman. “Reference guide on statistics.” 2nd ed. Federal Judicial Center, Washington, D.C. (2000) [PDF]
- L.D. Brown, M.L. Eaton, D.A. Freedman, S.P. Klein, R.A. Olshen, K.W. Wachter, M.T. Wells, and D. Ylvisaker. “Statistical controversies in Census 2000.”
*Jurimetrics*, vol. 39 (1999) pp. 347–75 [PDF-preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “From association to causation: Some remarks on the history of statistics.”
*Statistical Science*, vol. 14 (1999) pp. 243–58. Reprinted in*Journal de la Société Francaise de Statistique*, vol. 140 (1999) pp. 5–32 and in*Stochastic Musings: Perspectives from the Pioneers of the Late 20th Century.*Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2003) pp. 45–71. J. Panaretos, ed. [PDF-preprint] - D.A. Freedman and P.B. Stark. “The swine flu vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome.”
*Evaluation Review*, vol. 23 (1999) pp. 619–47 [PDF-preprint] - D.A. Freedman and P. Humphreys. “Are there algorithms that discover causal structure?”
*Synthese*, vol. 121 (1999) pp. 29–54 [PDF-preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “On the Bernstein-von Mises theorem with infinite dimensional parameters.”
*Annals of Statistics*, vol. 27 (1999) pp. 1119–40 [PDF-preprint] - D.A. Freedman and P. Diaconis. “Iterated random functions.”
*SIAM Review*, vol. 41 (1999) pp. 45–67 [SIAM] - D.A. Freedman, S.P. Klein, M. Ostland, and M.R. Roberts. “Review of ‘A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem.’ ”
*Journal of the American Statistical Association*, vol. 93 (1998) pp. 1518–22; [PDF-preprint] with discussion, vol. 94 (1999) pp. 352–57. [PDF-preprint] - P. Diaconis and D.A. Freedman. “Consistency of Bayes estimates for nonparametric regression: Normal theory.”
*Bernoulli Journal*, vol. 4 (1998) pp. 411–44. - D.A. Freedman. “De Finetti’s theorem in continuous time.” In
*Statistics, Probability and Game Theory: Papers in Honor of David Blackwell*. Institute of Mathematical Statistics Monograph 30 (1997) pp. 83–98. T.S. Ferguson, L.S. Shapley, and J.B. MacQueen, eds. - T.H. Lin, L.S. Gold, and D.A. Freedman. “Concordance between rats and mice in bioassays for carcinogenesis.”
*Journal of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology*, vol. 23 (1996) pp. 225–32. [preprint-PDF] - P. Humphreys and D.A. Freedman. “The grand leap.”
*British Journal of the Philosophy of Science*, vol. 47 (1996) pp.113–23. [Br J Phil Sci] [JSTOR] - K.W. Wachter and D.A. Freedman. “Planning for the Census in the year 2000.”
*Evaluation Review*, vol. 20 (1996) pp. 355–377 [PDF-preprint] - D.A. Freedman. “Some issues in the foundation of statistics.”
*Foundations of Science*, vol. 1 (1995) pp.19–83. Reprinted in*Some Issues in the Foundation of Statistics*, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1997). Bas C. van Fraassen, ed. [PDF-preprint]

**National Institute of Justice/RAND**

- S.P. Klein, D.A. Freedman, and R. Bolus, “A statistical analysis of charging decisions in death-eligible federal cases: 1995–2000.” [PDF] [NIJ website] [RAND website]

Lecture Notes

- First Lectures in Statistics 215 [PDF]
- What is a Random Variable? [PDF]
- What is the Error Term in a Regression Equation? [PDF]
- General Formulas for Bias and Variance in OLS [PDF]
- Another Proof of the Gauss-Markov theorem [PDF] Yet Another Proof [PDF]
- Notes on Regression Asymptotics [PDF]
- If the Assumptions Break Down, OLS Can Be Biased and Nominal SEs Can Be Wrong [PDF]
- Orthogonality Does Not Imply Asymptotic Normality [PDF]
- Comments on Standardizing Path Diagrams: What Are the Parameters? [PDF]
- Direct and Indirect Effects [PDF]
- Replicating Gibson on McCarthy: Weighted Regression [PDF]
- An Example to Illustrate the Asymptotics of IVLS [PDF]
- Endogeneity Bias Is Contagious [PDF]
- Can Exogeneity Be Determined from the Joint Distribution of Observables? [PDF]
- An Example of Under-Identification [PDF]
- The Neyman-Scott Paradox [PDF]
- Notes on the MLE [PDF]
- More on the MLE: The Likelihood Function Can Be Bimodal [PDF]
- Hierarchical Linear Regression [PDF]
- The Odds Ratio [PDF]
- Notes on Ratio Estimators and the Delta Method [PDF]
- On Kangaroos and Cookies: Causal Models for Paired Designs [PDF]
- Greenwood’s Formula [PDF]
- How To Make Power Calculations [PDF]

**The Census Trial of 1992**

Transcript: zipped text files [zip]

**Datasets**

Extracts from the Current Population Survey: ASCII files [ftp]